Teaching The Modern Changeup

The changeup is one of the least sensationalized pitch in baseball, but perhaps one of the most important to develop.

This part 3 of a 3 part series on the “modern” change up.  Here in part three, the goal is to explain how pitchers should best use their shiny new changeup, because executing the pitch in a game is ultimately the only thing that matters.  If you haven’t read the previous posts, click below to get started:

  • The Modern Change Up: In part one, we discussed the theory of the changeup, and how a pitcher can reliably remove speed, apply spin, and produce a consistent changeup that sinks, runs, and deceives a hitter.
  • How to Throw a Changeup: In part two, I explained my method of teaching it, with cues for both the coach and the pitcher.


It’s Not One Changeup, It’s Four

The biggest thing to understand about the modern changeup is that its action and effect varies depending on where it’s thrown. Let’s talk about five common locations into which it will be thrown. But first, I want to explain the terminology of arm-side versus glove-side, which describes pitch location without needing to know the handedness of the hitter

arm side glove side baseball pitcher

Thrown Glove-side: OK version; flattens out a bit and tends to be a little harder

The pitcher is forced to hold onto the pitch just a little longer to locate it on the glove-side of the plate, which means he can’t roll his hand inward quite as well; this results in a slightly harder changeup with less movement. A pitcher can throw this one, but it makes less sense when other locations will result in better action and deception.


Thrown Middle: Good version; will both sink and run, with correct speed differential

Thrown to the middle, it’s easy to pronate in on the pitch to get excellent sink, run and speed change. This was my favorite location to throw it because it would induce swings, and I could just let the pitch rip. Depending on how low in the zone I’d throw it, results would usually be a weak ground ball or swing and miss. The heavy downward action is a major failsafe, and pitchers don’t need to fear throwing it down the middle.


Thrown Arm-side: Best version; has the most sink, run and speed differential

The arm-side version is dynamite. Start it on the outer half or outer third, and it will sink below the strike zone on or off the corner of the plate. When a pitcher gets ahead in the count and has this in his arsenal, he can finish opposite-handed hitters off with ease, and bury a changeup down and in to strike out same-side hitters just as well. I punched out plenty of righties with righty-righty changeups; at worse, if they make contact, they’ll hook it foul.


Arm-Side Hanger: when a pitcher flies open and gets his hand too much on the side of it.

Pitchers are afraid of hanging changeups, and for good reason – they come in as slow fastballs at the belt, and fly out of the park in a hurry. But, when they learn to pronate their changeup, a good amount of sidespin will be applied even to hangers. The result is that many hanging changeups will “hunt” a same-side hitter. For me as a righty, I would drag occasionally through a changeup and watch as it bore hard into a righty’s hands, basically chasing him as he started his swing; they rarely could much of anything but try to get out of the way. In a sense, applying pronation to the changeup is a failsafe when a pitcher invariably pushes a few each game.

The GIF above is a great example of an arm-side hanging changeup that, if it didn’t have a lot of side-spin, might have lingered in the strike zone. It’s not a good pitch, but it keeps itself out of trouble.


Middle Hanger: you’re screwed just like any other “hung” off-speed pitch

When thrown at mid-thigh or above, out on the middle of the plate, speed-differential can’t save a pitcher, as hitters can reset themselves. If two changeups have the same action and speed differential, the one up in the zone will be easier for a hitter to re-adjust to despite being fooled early in the pitch’s flight.

The challenge is learning how to locate the pitch, which is more difficult because of the heavy movement. To throw the modern changeup for strikes, the pitcher needs to learn to use his eyes as a targeting system.


Focal Point: Differentiating Starting And Ending Point  

The catcher calls for a four-seamer. You lock your eyes on the mitt, kick and deliver; the pitch flies straight, and you hit you your spot. Next, he calls a changeup. You take your new changeup grip, lock eyes on the mitt then kick and deliver. You miss your spot down and arm-side by eight inches in both directions. What just happened?

Even at high levels, many pitchers don’t understand the concept of the starting point for breaking pitches. The starting and ending point for a slider are different. If a pitcher stares down the mitt and throws his slider for it, he either misses his spot by exactly the amount the slider breaks, or subconsciously starts the pitch at a higher, more lateral location to account for the break. Just like in golf – if you have a slice you can’t fix, just aim a little more to the side so your ball slices into the fairway, as opposed to into the rough. Right? Right.

As pitchers, we need to know our pitch will end up the in place we intend; for that reason, we musts pick a focal point that that represents the starting point on the trajectory that will result in our desired spot.  So, if you throw a 12-6 curveball that breaks exactly eight inches, and you want to throw it at the knee cap, the focal point must be eight inches above the knee cap.

Using focal points to account for break is the only reliable method of controlling breaking pitches, and the modern changeup. Because the changeup you’ve learned in this article series will have a consistent action – typically an equal combination of arm-side run and sink – the pitcher must learn where to start the pitch so it sinks and runs into the catcher’s mitt. Otherwise, every changeup that starts for the catcher’s mitt will sink out of the strike zone, and it will be tough to throw for strikes.

Three Key Steps: 

  1. Learn and develop the pitch until it has consistent, dependable action.
  2. Figure out where you should start the pitch so that its typical action will cause it to hit your desired spot.
  3. Work hard with your eyes – many pitches take their eyes off their target, which makes establishing a strong focal point connection difficult.


Throw As Many Changeups As Possible

Even if a pitcher today is striking out the world with just a fastball-slider combination, that will one day run out as he ascends the ranks of baseball. Learning a changeup today is an investment in avoiding that slump in the future, when the level of play catches up to an overachiever. Any new pitch takes at least a year to master, so start now.

The problem, though, is that playing changeup catch with your buddies isn’t, well, fun. Young pitchers like watching their curveball break, slider slide, and their brutal knuckleball occasionally knuckle. No pitcher has ever said, Hey! Let’s see who can throw the most deceptive changeup! Best out of ten!

The changeup will be the pitch that you need to get opposite-handed hitters out in a jam, the pitch you go to when a hitter picks up your breaking ball well, and when you need to induce that double-play ball with the bases loaded. It will be the pitch that makes everything else you throw better.

And, if a pitcher wants any chance at starting in college or pro baseball, a changeup is a requirement. The only guys who don’t throw changeups are select reliever specialists and the hardest-throwing, back-of-the-bullpen type pitchers who see more risk than reward in throwing 90mph changeups when the game is on the line.


Take Home

The changeup is evolving, and advanced metrics are showing us that movement and speed-change is superior to speed change alone. Learning a changeup with advanced qualities – more than just speed change– gives a pitcher a chance to be on the leading edge of advances in baseball.


How to Throw the Modern Change Up

In part one of this series on the changeup, we discussed the “modern changeup,” a version of the changeup that is typified by heavy sink and run that is thrown by an increasing number of successful Major Leaguers.

Here in part two, I’m going to provide step-by-step instructions to learn, and teach, the pitch that I believe will be the predominant version of the changeup in the future.

Step 1: Explain the Grip, Hand Action, and Theory

Here’s what you need to know:

The Modern Changeup Grip

  •      I teach a “hook ‘em horns” grip – similar to a circle change but with no circle
  •      The key is having the thumb on the bottom of the ball. This is CRUCIAL.
  •      Pressure must be from the thumb to the bottom crease of the middle fingers
  •      Ball is held as loosely as possible with no fingertip pressure


The Hand Action

The hand action of the pitch is also different, here is what I focus on:

  •      Slightly early pronation (pouring out a can of soda)
  •      The ball will release off the inner edge of the middle finger
  •      “Paint brush” type finish

The Spin

You should be able to tell a lot about your spin based on the flight of the ball:

  • Correct: diagonal spin that creates one thick, bright red seam spinning at 2-8 orientation for righties, or 10-4 for lefties
  • Flat: it will fly straight and be a little too hard; will look like a two-seam fastball, with parallel “railroad track” seams
  • Cut: the ball will cut (move to the glove side), often with what looks like railroad track spin.

The Speed

In regard to the spin, you are looking for:

  • 10% total speed reduction. For a 60mph pitcher, this means 53-55mph, on average.
  • 5% comes from the grip – if thrown flat, the pitch will be only 5% slower.
  • 5% comes from the hand action. Channeling arm speed over and inward on the ball converts arm speed into spin, which reduces velocity just like a breaking ball.

That’s it. Teach the pitcher how to hold the pitch, what his hand is supposed to do, and how the pitch is supposed to spin.

Now that you understand the basics.  Here is a detailed video explaining even more:

Step 2: Identify Mechanical Flaws That Preclude Good Changeups

Now that you know how to throw the modern changeup, we next need to understand some of the flaws that can occur.  

But first, we need to get on the same page: the goal is for the hand to pronate inward on the ball just before release. There are numerous mechanical flaws that will prevent this from happening, or make it overly difficult, including:

  • Flying open with the front side (the hips rotating toward the catcher before foot strike). The hand tends to move to the “cut” side of the ball when the front side opens too early.
  • Striding too open or too closed – either one makes it more difficult to deliver the chest and hand toward the plate, creating a more out-in-front extension.
  • Rotating in place (staying too tall) – pitchers apply better spin to their changeup with greater extension. Reaching farther “through” the pitch helps apply more spin on the inner edge as the hand pronates.
  • A soft, sinking front leg – the front leg needs to brace and help deliver the upper body forward, creating greater extension at release and allowing the pitcher to get both on the inside and on top of the baseball.
  • Sideways bending – the hand will turn the wrong way, again to the “cut” side of the ball with side bend. Pitchers tend to side-bend when they stride too far across their body, or their hips aren’t opening properly.
  • “Late” arm timing – good arm timing means the throwing forearm is somewhere between 10 and 11 o’clock (depending on which way the clock is) when the stride foot contacts the ground. Arms that are late –  9 o’clock or lower – force the hand to catch up later, and it can’t; the hand won’t make it to the inside of the pitch by “go time.” Pitchers with late timing usually throw cutting or flat changeups, which are too hard and have no useful movement.

These mechanical flaws will make it difficult to teach a good changeup, so a holistic view is necessary; we need to teach good pitching mechanics as a prerequisite to throwing a good changeup. But, since all of it will likely be a work in progress with amateur pitchers, the strategy to improve both at the same time.  

Step 3: The Hand Is The Variable Of Interest

To start, we first try to isolate hand position, so we can start teaching feel of good vs. bad changeups, without running into difficulty in pitchers with problematic mechanics (discussed above). Then, as the pitcher develops feel for the pitch, we slowly re-introduce his full mechanics.

Starting Drill: Knee or Standing Changeups at 25-30ft

We use this position to isolate as many variables as possible. By preventing the lower body from interacting with the upper body, we keep everything simple – the focus is on:

  •      Closing his upper body to his target
  •      Pointing his front shoulder to his target
  •      Giving his arm time to cycle up to the “top,” preventing late timing
  •      Reaching out with the pitch
  •      Finishing thumb down with the throwing hand
  •      And tucking the glove arm compactly by his side

All of the above are valuable mechanical concepts in addition to helping build a compact, simple upper body rotation that delivers repeatable changeups.

The Coach’s Job:

  1. Give feedback on spin on nearly every throw.
  2. Force them to execute the mechanics of the drill perfectly.  
  3. Graduate the pitcher to a progression drill only when most changeups have correct spin.  

We’ll make typically 20-40 throws like this, and the pitcher graduates to progression 1 when he shows me correct spin on 4 out of every 5 throws.

Progression 1: Hips-Square Changeups at 40 feet

In this drill, we put the pitcher in a more athletic position while still not allowing hip rotation. This helps to keep the arm action in two-dimensions (forward and back only) and teaches them how to separate the hips from the shoulders.

All the mechanical action-items are the same as in the knee changeups – point the glove arm, get closed, tuck the glove, and finish thumb-down. Separating the hips and shoulders should happen as well, which really just means closing off while keeping the lower body still.

The Coach’s Job:

  1. Continue to give mechanical and spin feedback on nearly every throw
  2. Explain how, when the drill mechanics are done wrong, changeup spin changes

        Note: This is important, because pitchers will have more freedom to mess this drill up than in the previous

  1. Move to progression 2 only when 4 out of every 5 throws have correct spin

Progression 2: Rocker Drill Changeups at 50 feet

The rocker drill allows the hips to pivot naturally, which, in turn, allows the pitcher to go back to a more three-dimensional arm action, which can allow mechanical flaws to come back into play. But, this drill is the first crucial gap between simply isolating the hand position that teaches feel of the pitch, with integrating that feel into how a pitcher normally throws.  

Changeup spin will break down here, as speed will make it more difficult to continue to feel correct hand position.

Continued Progress & Coaching

The rocker drill is the key stepping stone – once a pitcher can throw most of his changeups correctly from the rocker, he’s set to throw it from his delivery. The task, then, is gradually increasing velocity while maintaining compliance. As velocity increases, the percentage of correct changeups will decrease.

The Coach’s Job

The battle is for the pitcher to master the pitch at a lower velocity before moving up – otherwise, the feel of the pitch won’t be there. But, most pitchers like to throw too hard too often, and they thusly fail to learn the pitch. From my experience, this is what a beginner, who has gotten the feel at slow speed, looks like:

  • 100% correct changeups at 30 feet (standing drill)
  • 80% correct at 40 feet (hips-square drill)
  • 60% correct at 50 feet (rocker drill)
  • 50% correct at 55 feet at 50% effort (full windup)
  • 30% correct at 55 feet at 60% effort (full windup)
  • 20-25% correct at 55 feet at 75% effort (full windup)
  • 0% correct at full speed from their windup

The goal is to keep the pitcher in the 60% or above range – where there are enough good changeups and bad ones, where he can feel the difference between the two while still finding success more often than not. In the above example, I’d keep the pitcher working mostly on hips-square and rocker changeups until he was closer to 75% correct at the rocker drill. Then, we’d move on. The percentages used above are a good way of quantifying what we’re looking for: a benchmark for progressing a pitcher.

As the pitcher is released into the wild, so to speak, the coach must keep him on track, which means the following:

  • Forcing him to throw at lower velocities when he can’t throw the majority of changeups correctly
  • Constantly giving spin feedback – Good! No, that one cut; That one was flat
  • Giving mechanical feedback where necessary – this is often the more difficult correction to identify, and for the pitcher to make, but mechanics are a precursor to delivering the hand on time to get into the correct position to apply the spin we want.=

Teaching the Changeup Isn’t Hard

Teaching a changeup isn’t hard, if we know what we’re looking for. It’s easy to teach when the changeup has a defined spin and set of characteristics. When we’re guessing which grip might work best, and guessing how we’re going to remove speed from the ball, then it becomes a muddy, difficult task.

Stay tuned for part three, in which I’ll explain how we pitch with this changeup, compared to others. The skill of the operator dictates the usefulness of the tool.   

The Modern Changeup: The Best New Pitch In Baseball

The changeup is the most historically misunderstood baseball pitch.

Despite slight differences in grip, most other pitches are thrown in the same way across pitchers.

A slider has defined spin, a mixture of bullet-spin, forward and side spin that creates a visible red dot.

A curveball has defined spin, topspin moving in a 12-6 or 1-7 orientation with as true a spin axis as possible.

The grip might differ slightly, but the way spin is applied, which may be the biggest factor in throwing a breaking pitch, is largely the same.

But, what about the changeup?

The changeup, for no good reason, is confused. The change up is supposed to be…


This is likely the only thing changeup throwers all agree on. But, how much slower? Six miles per hour? Eight? 10? 12? And, straight?

Straight changeups are sooooo old-school.

Pull the string! But what about James Shields’ heavily-sinking changeup? Sink is good, right? He strikes out right-handers regularly with that thing. And, how about some arm-side run? That’s always a plus. Which version is best? What type should a young pitcher aim to develop?

And, what grip will get him there? Circle change? Vulcan change? “Fosh” changeup? Hook ‘em horns grip? Three-finger? Palm ball? Or, if all else fails, we can just say screw it and just throw a splitter; that’ll work as a poor-man’s changeup.

There’s too many questions, too much confusion with the changeup. Let’s clear it all up.


Characteristics of The Modern Changeup

First, let’s get it straight: a changeup does have a defined set of characteristics, and not all grips are created equal. Most people just aren’t on board with this yet. The best changeups feature the following:

  • Excellent arm speed that appears identical to the fastball
  • Speed reduction of 8-12% (miles per hour value varies depending on fastball velocity)
  • A combination of arm-side movement, known as “run,” and sinking movement.

James Shields is one of the best examples. Watch the short video below to see what I believe is the modern changeup:

Let’s consider the following:

Straight or Moving?

If all other parameters are equal, a pitch that has movement is harder to hit than a pitch that is straight.

Though a straight change perhaps looks exactly like a straight fastball (thus making it very deceptive), pure deception isn’t the end goal. The end goal, rather, is a mis-hit or swing and miss. When the hitter’s brain must deal with both speed change and movement away from the initial trajectory of the pitch, the likelihood of weak contact increases.

Pitchers want to create as many variables as possible to prevent the hitter from getting barrel to ball.

How Slow?

The answer depends on the other big half of the equation: movement.

From my years pitching professionally, my experience has been that the more movement a changeup has, the harder it can be thrown. Essentially, it’s no different than a slider or cutter Think about Noah Syndergaard’s extra-hard “slider,” and how hard it is to hit.

When a pitch is thrown harder, it flies longer along the same trajectory as a fastball.

When these harder breaking pitches finally do move off the fastball’s path, it makes them appear to break more suddenly, sharper, which in turn makes them more difficult to square up. The more speed we remove, the more the pitch must deviate from a fastball’s initial trajectory, thus making it look less like a fastball out of the hand.

The basement of speed change is about 8%. For a pitcher who throws 90mph, this is about 7mph off, or 83mph. But, a -8% changeup must have tremendous movement to be effective.

For all other changeups, as movement decreases, speed change must proportionally increase. If a changeup is dead-straight, being closer to a 12% reduction is ideal (79mph off a 90mph fastball).

There are many times when we pitchers get away with a changeup that was thrown a little too hard because late movement caused it to fade off his barrel at the last moment.

How Hard?

This is basic, but needs to be addressed in any good changeup article.

A changeup needs to be thrown with as much intensity as possible. The “harder” a changeup is thrown, the more it matches fastball arm speed, and initially fools the hitter into thinking that 90mph arm speed = 90mph output. We need 90mph arm speed with a 79-83mph output.

What allows this to be possible is the grip and hand action, both of which play equal parts in reducing the velocity output.

What About Cutting Changeups?

Kyle Hendricks purposefully cuts his changeup sometimes. But, this is just another iteration of his changeup, a different way for a him to manipulate hitters.

Though this works quite well for him, it’s not the standard version for most pitchers, for one main reason: pitchers need a pitch that breaks away from opposite-handed hitters.

If we cut our changeup, how does it vary from a slider?

Not much, is the answer.

As a right-handed pitcher myself, I threw more changeups to lefties, because I didn’t want my curveball breaking down and in, into their happy zone.

For a veteran pitcher who throws a curveball, sinker, sinking changeup, mixing in an occasional cutting changeup will definitely confuse a hitter. But, that’s much more of a thing Big Leaguers do to stay effective, and much less the rule we teach an amateur or minor leaguer who needs consistency more than anything.

Throwing The Modern Changeup

If we compromise on a goal of 10% speed reduction, which will be ideal for the majority of pitchers, we need to understand how we obtain that reduction.

We get about 5% from the grip itself, and 5% from the hand action.

Breaking pitches are slower than fastballs not because they are thrown with less intensity. Rather, that arm speed and velocity is lost into the baseball by spinning it.

This is the same for the changeup.

When force is applied to the center of the baseball, the baseball will come out hard, because all of the available arm speed is going into propelling the ball forward and applying backspin. Aside from slowing the arm or hand down, or not “finishing” the pitch, there’s no reliable way to reduce the speed of a changeup when force is applied through the center.

This is why we need a defined hand action that converts speed into spin.

The grip will only account for a 5% speed reduction when force is applied to the center of the baseball. That equals 4.5mph off a 90mph – much too hard to be effective.

The hand action provides the second 4.5mph, and that action is the same as a sinker, and somewhat opposite of a slider: pronating the hand on the inside of the ball just before release.

By pronating the hand onto the inside of the ball just before release (think pouring out a can of soda), we accomplish two things:

  1. We reduce speed because less force is applied to the center of the ball; we are converting speed into spin just like a breaking pitch
  2. We tilt the axis of rotation of the ball to a diagonal axis, which will result in angled downward movement – a mix of both arm-side lateral movement (run) and sink.

And with that, we have given the changeup a reliable set of characteristics just like any other pitch. When thrown the above way, we will reliably achieve a 10% (plus or minus) speed reduction that can easily be repeated at any intensity. We also create a reliable movement pattern for the hand, creating relatively equal parts sink and lateral movement.

A few of my high school pitchers threw to the Rapsodo device and turned in spin-efficiencies of 90% or better, indicating a very “clean” diagonal spin axis on their changeups, confirming that what I believed was happening.

Depending on the pitcher and his unique way of executing the pitch, the output will vary slightly. I’ve taught this exact style of changeup to hundreds of pitchers, and 70% will obtain a 10% speed reduction with equal parts lateral and sinking movement. 15% will throw get the same speed reduction with predominantly lateral movement, and another 15% will get the same speed reduction, but only sinking movement.

Provided the speed reduction is there, anomalies in movement are okay, and to be expected – no two pitchers are alike. I have one collegiate pitcher who throws the pitch with a 15% reduction, no decrease in arm speed, and heavy, fork-ball like sink with no lateral movement whatsoever.

The ball comes out in a unique way, with a tumbling spin rather than an angled axis. But, the output is fine for him – it’s different, but still exceptionally effective. He reminds me of Brad Lidge, who threw a slider that appeared to have mostly downward movement. His slider wasn’t the archetypal slider, but it still had deadly effect as shown by his season of 41 saves without a single blown opportunity.

Even with consistency in teach methods, there will be an inconsistency in output. But, most pitchers will develop a changeup that consistently fits the aforementioned mold.

Can All Changeup Grips Accomplish This?

In short, no.

There are a few conditions that result in more reliable hand action and spin application, which are made difficult or impossible by certain grips.

Condition 1: Pressure must be at the junction of the palm and fingers, not on the fingertips.

We maximize lateral spin application by forcing the ball to roll up the fingers before finally releasing off the fingertip. Changeups that start and leave from the fingertips do not gather as much spin, and often fly too straight or “flat.”

Condition 2: The ball must be held stable with as little pressure as possible.

We need to think of “paintbrushing” the hand over the changeup.

But, we need to do this at a 100% intensity, which is difficult. So, we need a combination of the hand being as relaxed as possible while still being held securely. To do this, the thumb must be on the bottom.

Condition 3: Overall hand tension must be as low as possible.

A relaxed hand applies spin more fluidly and evenly, and allows the pitch to more closely resemble a fastball at release. A tense hand also tends to force the changeup into the ground, resulting in spiked changeups that are often the signature of beginners. Forcing the fingers down the sides of the baseball are one of a few culprits that cause undue hand tension.

Condition 4: To accomplish the above, the thumb must be on the bottom of the baseball.

If the thumb cradles the ball from the bottom, the rest of the hand can be almost completely relaxed. If the thumb is not beneath the ball, as in the “circle change” grip, the fingertips will tense up to prevent the ball from simply falling out of the hand. Tension and fingertip pressure will result in the pitcher hooking the pitch into the ground more often.

As a side note, my students rarely bounce changeups while they learn them, because the grip I teach provides a relaxed hand. This is not to say they miss up the in zone; rather, they are able to control the ball in the strike zone most of the time, with the same frequency as their fastball, with fewer egregious misses. The changeup spiked five feet in front of the plate, typical of beginners, is extremely rare in my baseball academy.

Teaching and Throwing the Modern Changeup

This is the first article in a 3-part series on throwing the modern changeup. In part two of this changeup article series, I’ll cover a step-by-step method of teaching and throwing the modern changeup.

In my years as a baseball academy owner and professional pitcher, I’ve taught this pitch with equally great effect to 11-year olds and 25-year old pros. I use a simple step-by-step approach to teaching the pitch the cornerstone of which is watching and giving constant feedback on ball spin. After that, it’s up to the pitcher to put in the time and dedication honing the pitch and learning how to pitch with it.

And, in part three, we’ll discuss the difference in how you pitch with the modern changeup. Righty-on-righty changeups? You bet. Gloveside changeups for called strikes? Not so much. Learning how to maximize the effect of the pitch, and minimize its weaknesses is what takes a pitcher to the next level.

In the meantime, subscribe to my Podcast, titled Dear Baseball Gods and find me on Instagram @coachdanblewett.